Academic and Research Services
The academic and research services area holds academically relevant information for each subject. The information goes beyond the search option for subject literature, the publication of documents and the access to electronic full-texts. It includes announcements of specialist meetings and grants, job advertisements or study programmes as well as information on scholarships or an index of academic final papers.
Acquisitions Lists see New Acquisitions.
Propylaeum is supported by an academic advisory board.
The Mailinglist of Professor Jack Sasson (Vanderbilt University) provides daily new information concerning the fields of Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Egyptology and Theology (mainly Old Testament), e.g. about job offers, stipends, recent discoveries, conferences and a lot more. This list is the main distributer of scientific information in the field Ancient Near Eastern Studies.
The International Association of Byzantine Studies - 'Association Internationale des Etudes Byzantines' (AIEB) was launched in 1948. The object of the Association is to promote Byzantine studies in the widest sense; the office of the Association is located at Paris.
Alerting-Services see RSS-Feed
In the field of classical studies Ancient History - in contrast to Classical Archaeology and Pre- and Early History - is concerned primarily with the written legacy (inscriptions and texts surviving on other media) of the antique cultures of the Mediterranean. The time under research extends from the 3rd millennium BC to 565 AD, the time of the death of Emperor Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustianus. This means that there are some intersections with Egyptology owing to the evaluation of the Egyptian hieroglyphic texts. Some further common research interests are also shared with Classical Archaeology, e. g. in the interpretation of the Mycenaean culture of the bronze age, and with Classical Philology in the historical interpretation of antique literature. The geographic area of research encompasses all states of the Mediterranean region, Mesopotamia and the Nile delta. Apart from this also the history of the "greater area" of Greece and later on also of the Roman empire and its provinces, at the time of its greatest expansion under the reign of Emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus, are researched. Since the 19th century research has focused more and more exclusively on the Greek and Roman history, taking account of the history of their "contact zones".
Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology
The Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology deals mainly with the material culture of the Middle East beginning in Prehistoric Time (Palaeolithic), ending with the fall of the Sasanian Empire in 651. In addition to this, regions like Iran, Central Asia and Pakistan-India are also of special interest for Ancient Near Eastern Archaeologists.
Ancient Near Eastern Studies consists of two subject areas, Ancient Near Eastern Philology and Near Eastern Archaeology. Bearing in mind the diverse relations between the advanced civilizations of ancient times, it represents, geographically, the area of Asia Minor in the West to the Indus Valley in the East, the Black Sea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Iran and Afghanistan in the North to Yemen in the South; the time-frame spans from the Aceramic period (10,000 B.C.E) to the time of Alexander the Great (4th century B.C.E.) and in some regions even up until the emergence of Islam (7th century C.E.). In terms of content, the subject covers all areas of the spiritual and material aspects of civilization, such as writing, literature, art and culture, religion, archaeology, history, commerce, law, etc. There is a certain overlap with related subjects due to the diverse contents and broad chronological and geographical spectrum of this subject area (Pre- and Early History, Egyptology, Ancient History, Middle East Studies, South Asia Studies). All aspects of ANE Studies are provided for through the comprehensive approach of Propylaeum, although particular attention is paid to the regions of Mesopotamia, Southern and Southwestern Iran, Syria-Palestine and Asia Minor, from the fourth millennium B.C.E. to the end of the Cuneiform Period in the 1st century C.E
Announcements see Academic and Research Services
Archaeology in general concerns the study of all material and visual remains of a culture, like the so called Classical Archaeology. In some Classical Studies disciplines it only forms part of the entire subject, as for example in Egyptology or in Ancient Near Eastern Studies or in Classical Philology.
Assyriology / Ancient Near Eastern Philology
Assyriology is a scientific discipline, which deals mainly with the scientific analyses of the in Sumerian and Akkadian written cuneiform documents and their philological, linguistical and factual structure. Basing on the results on the Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology its main aim is to research the Sumerian and Akkadian language and to explore the history and culture of Ancient Mesopotamia and adjacent regions. The term “Assyriology” was established after the earliest cuneiform discoveries were made in Northern Mesopotamia, ancient Assyria. Nowadays many scholars use also the terms “Sumerology” and “Akkadian Studies” paying herewith attention to the existing differentiation of this discipline. (after: M. Müller, Die Keilschriftwissenschaften an der Leipziger Universität bis zur Vertreibung Landsbergers im Jahre 1935, Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Karl-Marx-Univ. Leipzig 28/1 (1979) 67, Anm. 1)
Bavarian State Library
As the central state library and repository library, the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek took over the role of public agency for all matters concerning the Bavarian library system in 1999. It thus plays a decisive part in all Bavaria-wide planning and coordination activities in the library system.
It holds an inventory of over 9 Million Monographies, 35.000 digitalized monographies, 52.000 current periodicals, 92.000 manustcrips and 19.900 incunables. According to the special subject fields programme of the German Research Foundation and corresponding with its traditional special subject collections (SSG), the Bavarian State Library purchases all published material in the following fields: Bibliology, Librarianship and Informationsystems,
History, General, Prehistory and Early History, Byzantium, Classical Studies including Antique History, History of Germany, Austria and Switzerland, History of France and Italy, History of Eastern Europa, Albanian Language and Literature, Romanian Language and Literature, Modern Greece, Musicology. [Contact]
In Propylaeum a thematic portal on bequests by Classical Studies scholars held in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek is being set up.
Biblical Archaeology regards the research of archaeological remains in the regions of Israel and Palestine. Thereby, the focus especially lies on the time frame between the Neolithic and the Iron Age. It is closely connected to the Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology.
Bibliographic databases record literature from a certain thematic area as comprehensively as possible. Generally they can be searched for bibliographic references with the help of different search criteria. Besides monographs also essay titles in serial publications or periodicals can be found, which usually are not listed in common library catalogues.
Bibliographic Management Programmes
A bibliographic management programme can support you to complete and administrate your own literature database. Standard functions include entering new references, searching online catalogues / databases and the possibility to cite references in a word processing programme. Thereby a significant number of academic citation styles are supported. Offers in Propylaeum: Citavi, Endnote, ZOTERO.
Browsers are computer programmes for viewing website; especially common are web browsers such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera and Google Chrome. The choice of browsers can influence the appearance of a website.
Byzantine Art History
Byzantine Art History concerns the studies of artistic and material remains from the Byzantine Empire. As the name suggests it regards a cultural and visual science, which furthermore is a part of the overall subject Byzantine Studies. The subject is closely linked to Late Antique and Christian Archaeology. It covers the time frame between Late Antiquity and the Fall of Constantinople.
Byzantine studies (Byzantinology) addresses all aspects of the history and culture of Byzantium – the medieval state that formed from the Eastern part of the Roman Empire –, of which Constantinople, the present-day Istanbul, was the capital. It is a discipline that encompasses a great number of subjects and approaches.
While the beginning of the Romaioi’s Empire – as the Byzantines called themselves – is controversially discussed (especially the years 284, 330, 565 and 641), the end of the East Roman Empire, marked by the final conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans in May 1453, is easily determined.
In the history of Byzantium its boundaries have undergone some dramatic alterations: During the time of its greatest expansion the territory extended from the Pillars of Hercules (Gibraltar) to the Euphrates, while in the very end it remained confined to Constantinople and its hinterland as well as some areas of present-day Greece.The Byzantines’ culture was shaped not only by the Greek and Roman roots but also by Christianity, developing into a state religion.
Citavi is a programme for bibliographic and knowledge management. You can search databases and library catalogues, import and administrate references. Furthermore, Citavi offers numerous citation styles (i.e. for the Deutsche Archäologische Institut). For further information please see Bibliographic Management Programmes.
Classical Archaeology concerns itself with the study of material and visual remains of classical Greek and Roman civilizations. This definition includes earlier phases (such as the Bronze Age Mycenaean culture), after-effects (such as the influence on early Byzantine art), and connections to neighbouring cultures. Geographically the discipline primarily covers Greece, Italy and Asia Minor, and moreover provinces of the Roman Empire.
Classical Greek Studies
Classical Greek Studies or Ancient Greek Philology is the science of ancient Greek languages and literature. Together with Latin they form the so called Classical Philology.
In the field of classical studies Classical Philology - in contrast to Classical Archaeology and Pre- and Early History - is concerned primarily with the written legacy of the antique world of the Greek and the Romans. Its main focus is on the language (Greek and Latin) and the surviving fictional and non-fictional texts, among them also subject texts from the fields of historiography, philosophy, rhetoric, geography and medicine, as well as the conditions under which they were written and handed down. In contrast to Ancient History research is rarely carried out on non-literary, non-fictional types of texts, such as e. g. inscriptions and texts embossed on coins. However, what all disciplines have in common is the historical interest in the antique culture of the Greek and the Romans and their reconstruction.
Classical Philology as an independent scholarly discipline developed as early as in pre-Alexandrian times, when first attempts were made at putting the surviving works of the poets on a reliable text foundation and at also interpreting them. The period researched by classical Greek studies extends from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD, that of classical Latin studies from the 3rd century BC to the 6th century AD, both disciplines also taking account of the respective history of reception. The geographic area under research encompasses the Greek-Hellenistic Mediterranean koine and the Roman empire with its provinces, thus extends from the Mediterranean to north-western and central Europe.
Clm Codices latini monacenses
Correspondence Course see Academic and Research Services
DFN-AAI see German National Research and Education Network
In this section you can find digitized monographs and periodicals from collections of libraries participating in the project Propylaeum, as well as links to subject related digitized literature from all over the world.
Digitized Manuscripts see Digital Collections
Document Server see E-Publishing
Document Delivery see Subito
The Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB - Electronic Journals Library) initiated and maintained by the library of Regensburg University provides access to articles from Classical studies e-journal via the subject links in Propylaeum. The traffic light symbols show the availability of full-texts, which will vary for each journal depending on which institution you belong to or which workstation you are using.
The subject covers all areas of pharaonic high culture such as writing, literature, art and culture, religion, archaeology, history, commerce, etc. Egyptology also includes the pre- and early history of Egypt, Nubian Studies, as well as Coptic language and literature. There is a certain overlap with related subjects (Pre- and Early History), but Egyptology concentrates on the period from c. 4000 B.C. until c. 400 A.D.
With the help of Endnote bibliographic references can be administrated and sorted into lists. Endnote offers many options to import data from online catalogues and databases. For many subject journals citation templates are offered. The matching file for citing the Deutsche Archäologische Institut can be found under opac.dainst.org. For more information please see Bibliographic Management Programmes.
E-Publishing (Electronic Publishing) see also Propylaeum-DOK
ETANA - Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives – is a web portal which provides early or genuine digital monographs, dictionaries, journals, excavation reports etc. A separate part represents ABZU. There it is possible to search all information housed on ETANA.
Exhibitions see Academic and Research Services
EZB (Electronic Journals Library) see E-Journals
Fédération Internationale des Associations d'Études Classiques (FIEC)
A fulltext index contains all the information on data, which can easily be searched through a search engine. Almost all words can be searched, only those without any informational content ("the", "a") or words functioning as Boolean operators ("and", "or") usually are not indicated.
German National Research and Education Network (DFN-AAI)
Via the authentication and autorisation infrastructure (AAI) users can register to search licensed databases.
German Research Foundation (DFG)
The German Research Foundation is the central, self-governing research funding organisation which supports research at universities and other publicly financed research institutions in Germany. It promotes individual projects, research training groups, research collaborations and infrastructure. Within the mentioned programme for special subject collections (SSG) the DFG supports 23 state and university libraries. The BSB Munich holds the special subject collections à Ancient History, à Byzantine Studies, à Classical Philology, à Medieval and Neo-Latin Philology as well as à Pre- and Early History et al.; Heidelberg University Library administrates the special subject collections à Egyptology and à Classical Archaeology and Tübingen University Library the collections à Ancient Oriental Studies. All subjects are brought together in Propylaeum, the Virtual Library Classical Studies, which likewise is supported by the DFG.
A collection of useful internet resources for classical language classes are available in KIRKE.
Heidelberg University Library (UB)
The University Library (UB) Heidelberg is the central library in the library system of the University of Heidelberg. Its collection includes over 3 Million media: around 980.000 volumes from the old stock of printed works published before 1900, more than 488.000 non-book-materials, over 4.600 continuously kept printed periodicals and newspapers, as well as 49.900 e-journals, 1.800 databases, and around 1.650 e-books in the campus-network. Within the programme of the German Research Foundation (DFG) for special subject collections Heidelberg University Library supervises the special subject collections “Egyptology”, “Classical Archaeology”, “Arts Studies and Medieval and Modern Art History up to 1945” as well as since 2005 “South Asian Studies”. [Contact]
Hittitology is an independent discipline of cuneiform studies. It was founded in 1915 by Bedřich Hrozný, who deciphered the cuneiform tablets from Boğazköy, ancient Hattusa. The discipline Hittitology deals with the Indo-European language spoken in Anatolia and the culture of the Hittites, a people living in Central Anatolia in the 2nd millennium BC. Hittite is the oldest known written Indo-European language and is therefore of enormous importance for the Indo-European Studies.
Image Repositories see Digital Collections
Incunabula databases can be found under the module “Subject Databases” of Medieval and Neo-Latin Philology. Digitized incunabula are listed there under the module “Digital Collections”.
Inter Library Loan
Inter library loan is a service offered by libraries to provide literature (books and copies of journals) which is not available in the local library. The service is charged for. A quick yet more expensive alternative is the document delivery service (see Subito).
Concerning technical questions, please contact Propylaeum via e-mail email@example.com.
Job Adverts see Academic and Research Services
Karlsruhe Virtual Catalogue (KVK)
Via a small Meta search option the Karlsruhe Virtual Catalogue (KVK) provides over 500 million records of books and journals from national and international library catalogues online.
Keywords describe the contents of various media; unlike subject headings keywords do not have to appear in the title.
KIRKE provides a free database of internet resources for Ancient History, Byzantine Studies, Classical Philology, Medieval and Neo-Latin Philology and Pre- and Early History. It is initially a service of the Latin Philology at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; as a result of the cooperation with the project Propylaeum, this service merged with the catalogue of internet resources of the Bavarian State Library and therefore enhanced the former.
Latest News can be found in our News-Box on the front page („New in Propylaeum“).
A collection of useful internet resources for classical language lessons are available in KIRKE.
Latin Philology or Latin as such is the science of ancient Latin language and literature. Together with Greek Philology it forms the subject Classical Philology.
Library Catalogues see OPAC
A licensed database refers to a database that charges it’s services; in order to use the database the users either have to be registered personally (also see Shibboleth or National Licenses) or have to hold a membership card from a research library which has subscribed the database.
LitLink is a free database programme for information management. With this programme you not only can manage bibliographic information (also see PropylaeumSearch) but also text passages, websites and images. Furthermore, it is possible to set links between the different bibliographic information. For further information please see Bibliographic Management Programmes.
Manuscript databases can be found under the module “Subject Databases” of the subjects Byzantine Studies as well as Medieval and Neo-Latin Philology. Collections of digitized manuscripts can be found there under the module “Digital Collections”.
Maps and atlases are listed in library catalogues.
Medieval and Neo-Latin Philology
Medieval and Neo-Latin Philology is the study of the language and the literature of the Medieval (from the 5th/6th century onwards) and Modern Ages. It is therefore subsequent to the research field of Classical Latin, a language which, in spite of some transformations, has shown a remarkable continuity through the ages.
Fictional as well as non-fictional texts, hence the whole variety of the written legacy, are taken into consideration.
It is in this context that the indexing of the sources through editions and the means of palaeography, codicology, textual criticism as well as textual tradition and the history of effect and reception are of major importance.
Meta Search refers to a search option which enables users to retrieve information from several different online catalogues or rather online databases simultaneously through one surface. ProyplaeumSearch is an example for a Meta search option. Please see Detail Search.
General information and a list of various products can be found under www.nationallizenzen.de. The Database Information System (DBIS) and accordingly the Electronic Journals Library Heidelberg (Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - EZB) provide access to databases and e-journals accessible only through national licences.
Nationwide Library Services
The system of Nationwide Library Services sponsored by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) aims at providing all scientists and academics in Germany without restriction with highly specialised literature (printed and digital).
Besides libraries with special subject collections, some specialized libraries and the three German specialist national libraries for Applied Natural Sciences the Virtual Subject Libraries, such as Propylaeum, form the foundation of this system.
Navigators see Refine Search
The ‚Online-Contents-Special Subject Collection-Database (‚Online-Contents-Sondersammelgebiet-Datenbank’) lists articles from selected Classical Studies journals. The database is not only there to assist you with your bibliographical research but it also serves as an ordering database for inter library loans and fee-charging document delivery services. The database can be found under the module “Journals / Articles” and is furthermore integrated into PropylaeumSearch.
Old Imprints see Digital Collections
The ‚Online Public Access Catalogue’ (OPAC) holds digital records of library collections.
Open Access stands for free and public access to scientific literature in the internet. Open Access permits copying, distributing, printing and searching of full texts, and refers to them by legal means, i.e. without financial, legal or technical barriers. The only restriction lies in the fact that the copyright and the control remain with the authors, and therein that Open Access is cited and receives appropriate acknowledgement.
Publish your work on alternative, freely accessible platforms in the www. For example use Propylaeum-DOK free of charge for your publications in the field of Classical Studies to make your research citable.
Palestine Archaeology see Biblical Archaeology
Pay-per-use is a service of the Bavarian State Library: all users can register and access single databases; the price is calculated according to the time of use.
Pay-per-view refers to the accounting method for users of licensed databases. As an alternative to a subscription of an electronic journal the users have to pay the database providers for downloading single articles.
Portals refer to a websites which serve as entry points for surfers. They immediately provide internet users with relevant information and form a platform from which they can easily access other websites. Subject specific portals can also be referred to as Subject Portals.
Pre- and Early History
In the field of classical studies Prehistory and Early History, like Classical Archaeology, are primarily concerned with the material legacy (glass, wood, ceramic, bones, metal, stone artefacts, etc.) of the antique world, however are not limited to the Greco-Roman cultural area. The finds are evaluated and interpreted using typological, historical/socio-historical, scientific (dendrochronology, 14C dating, etc.) and statistical methods. The period researched extends from the early history of mankind in Africa to the high middle ages. Therefore their geographic research area is not limited to Europe. There are also some intersections with other scholarly disciplines: With Ancient History, Classical Philology and Provincial Roman Archaeology concerning the historical interpretation of antique literature (sources), provided that provinces of the Roman empire are described.
Propylaeum-DOK is the full-text server of Propylaeum, i.e. the Virtual Library Classical Studies and is made available by the University Library of Heidelberg. It offers members of the academic community worldwide the opportunity to publish their texts in electronic format on the internet at no charge. The documents will be stored and their long-term availability guaranteed by using standardized addresses (URN) and metadata (OAIPMH). Publications in Propylaeum-DOK are equivalent to conventional publications and therefore also citable.
The virtual subject library Propylaeum offers various catalogues and databases relevant to Classical Studies through its Meta search option 'PropylaeumSEARCH'. The different catalogues and databases can be searched simultaneously within one web-based search interface. Immediately after completing your search you can order the available documents (fee required) or view the online full-text versions.
A simple (Free Search) and an advanced search option (Detail Search) can be found on every Propylaeum website in the top left corner of the screen.
It is necessary to register for databases which are only accessible through national licences (i.e. PIO).
After concluding a search the large result can be restricted according to the following criteria: date of publication, subject, author/institution, form/type of publication and language.
Research Promotion see Academic and Research Services
The results of an individual search in Propylaeum-SEARCH as well as the latest news i.e. information in the News-Box “New in Propylaeum” can be subscribed via RSS. RSS (= Really Simple Syndication) is a XML based format developed in order to exchange the latest news and other web-contents. Further information and a downloadable RSS-Reader can be found for example here or here.
Semantic network refers to a formal model of terms and their relation. Propylaeum holds the Thematic Portal “Reception of Antiquity in a Semantic Network”, which tests different forms of semantic networks: the direct contextualisation of objects from Philipp von Stosch's gem collection, the collation of semantic documentation standards and their mapping on the CIDOC/CRM.
SISYPHOS is a subject gateway, which in contrast to simple link collections, offers links to selected, high quality internet resources. The selected websites are evaluated according to their scientific relevance and recorded following library standards. SISYPHOS provides access to Classical Archaeological, Ancient Near Eastern and Egyptological websites, such as current research projects, databases, image databases, search engines, discussion forums, or mailing lists. Within the database system the links are regularly controlled by link checkers in order to provide an up to date collection.
With the help of the new procedure Shibboleth it is possible to access licensed services of various providers regardless of where you are. In order to be gained access you must registered with your home institution provided that it is a partner in the German National Research and Education Network (DFN).
Hierarchical structure of websites within Propylaeum
Social bookmarks are bookmarks for websites, which however in contrast to conventional bookmarks (or favorites) in your private browser are memorized in a public social-bookmark-service, so that they can be administrated from all over the world. Furthermore, they can be indexed by various users collaboratively and with the help of RSS-Feeds made accessible to interested users. Users can set, delete, comment or tag bookmarks with all providers. Equally you can view the bookmarks of other users.
More information on social bookmarking and some of the providers can be found here.
Special Subject Collections (SSG)
Special Subject Collections are determined thematic focus and for each of these. One Germany aims at compiling a complete collection,
The Special Subject Collections Pre- and Early History (6.11), Classical Studies including Ancient History, Medieval and Neo-Latin Philology (6.12) and Byzantine Studies (6.15) are held at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München, the Classical Archaeology (6.14) and Egyptology (6.21) is held at Heidelberg University Library, Ancient Near Eastern Studies at the Tübingen University Library.
A subject catalogue (or subject-OPAC) contains subject relevant literature from one library. In Propylaeum it mainly refers to literature from libraries holding the according special subject collection of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation).
Subito is a document delivery service offered by research libraries. It provides photocopies of articles from periodicals or books within three days – or 24 hours via Express orders. Due to copyright reasons only copies from printed works are permitted, and therefore the delivery of parts of digital works is not possible.
Suggestions and Requests are always welcome; please send us an e-mail.
The Sumerology is part of the Ancient Near Eastern Philology / Assyriology and deals with the oldest documents written in cuneiform. These texts are written in Sumerian. The language was deciphered in the 1920s. It was mainly spoken in southern Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC and was used as a scholary language like Latin in Europe until the 1st millennium BC. Sumerology deals mainly with the cultural history of the 3rd millennium BC when Sumerian was a spoken language (that means the so-called Early Dynastic or Old Sumerian Time [ca. 2900-2350 BC] and the time of Ur III- or Neo-Sumerian time [ca. 2100-2000 BC]).
Thematic portals are sub portals within Propylaeum, the Virtual Library Classical Studies, which enable external partners to share their own research results. By using the content management system Typo3 the website can be maintained by multiple external administrators with specified access rights. Scholars can participate by sharing their research results online and thereby not only raise the academic level of the virtual library but also advance networking between libraries and academia.
Tuebingen University Library (UB)
The University Library (UB) of Tuebingen is mentioned for the first time in 1499, 22 years after the University of Tuebingen was founded. Herewith it is one of the oldest University Libraries in Germany. It hosts today more than 3,5 million books and four so-called “Sondersammelgebiete” (Special subject collections): Ancient Near East, Religious Studies, Christian Theology and Criminology.
The Content-Management-System Typo3 enables the project partners from different locations to continuously administrate and update the website Propylaeum.
Vascoda is an introductory portal to literature research which offers interdisciplinary and subject-specific search options, and for further research leads users on to specialized, subject specific offers provided by participating libraries and information providers. Via a search engine it is possibility to search in databases, library catalogues and selected websites etc. Vascoda unites the offers of all virtual libraries so far accessible on the internet.
Virtual Subject Library
A virtual subject library is an internet library which provides online access to scientifically relevant information and documents on one subject. The internet portal primarily holds various search engines and databases for subject specific research purposes. This information includes titles of monographs and articles, internet resources as well as digitized literature, which can all be searched simultaneously through a Meta search option. Usually a virtual subject library also provides the possibility to publish your own work electronically. The virtual subject libraries are administrated by libraries all over Germany which are in charge of a special subject collection. Since 2003 these virtual subject libraries are united in vascoda. The virtual subject libraries are supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation).
The Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB) holds over 1.5 million records of serial titles (periodicals, and newspapers, etc.) in printed and digital form and lists in which libraries the volumes are available. Titles of articles are not listed.
ZENON refers to the central online catalogue of the DAI with three integrated archaeological subject bibliographies. The catalogue can be searched formally and thematically for around 800.000 titles (monographs, articles, journals) from nine DAI Libraries. ZENON is integrated into ProplyaeumSearch.
ZOTERO is an open source tool for Mozilla Firefox. It enables users to compose and manage sources (from search result hit lists) and offers citation options. In scientific publications it can be implemented as a bibliographic management programme, and is a useful aid for compiling bibliographic lists and data.